Joint mode of solid wood furniture — Interpretation of structural technology of mortise joint mode
The parts of wooden furniture need to be connected to each other to form products. The connection between parts is called joining. The choice of the joint mode has a direct impact on the firmness and stability of the structure, the aesthetics of the furniture and the processing technology. The commonly used joint methods of furniture parts are: tenon joint, nail joint, wood screw joint, glue joint and connector joint, etc.
Tenon joint refers to the joint composed of tenon and mortise or mortise. It is the joint way of traditional solid wood furniture. The parts are connected by mortise and mortise, and the joint strength is increased by glue joint. The main types of tenons are: right angle tenon, dovetail tenon, round tenon and finger tenon. Many other types of tenons are evolved from these tenons.
The tenon and mortise of the right angle tenon joint are square, with high joint strength, and are commonly used for the vertical and horizontal connection of two square materials.
The types of tenon joints are:
Opening, through mortise and tenon joint, the mortise end and one side of the mortise exposed, affect the appearance of furniture, and this way of joint force is low, used for parts with little stress and low decoration requirements.
Closed, through mortise and tenon joint, this way of joint force is large, but the tenon end is exposed, affecting the overall aesthetic, so it is suitable for the structure with large stress and opaque finishing furniture.
Closed, not through tenon joint, this way tenon is hidden, the external beauty is good, suitable for the decorative surface of high-grade furniture.
Half closed and tenon joint, which can not only twist the tenon, but also increase the bonding area, so it has the advantages of both open tenon and closed tenon. Generally, it is applicable to the joint covered by a certain part of the product and the internal frame of the product, such as the joint between the chair stall and the chair leg. Because the chair stall is covered by a seat plate, its appearance will not be affected.
The tenon and mortise of the round tenon joint are round. Compared with the right angle tenon, the joint strength is about 30% lower, but it saves wood and is easy to process. It is mainly used for the connection of panel furniture parts and the connection of square materials with low joint strength requirements.
The round tenon materials are mainly made of ash, birch, oak and other hard materials with high density and no defects; the round tenon materials shall be dried with moisture content lower than 7%, and the spare round tenon shall be sealed and packed to prevent moisture content change caused by moisture absorption.
When dovetail joint is adopted, it has strong pull-out resistance along the direction of dovetail. It is mainly used for corner connection of box frame, and its joint technical requirements are similar to that of tenon joint.
Elliptical tenon joint:
Oval tenon is a special kind of right angle tenon, the difference is that its two sides are semicircular cylinder, the two ends of the tenon are the same. The size and technical requirements of the elliptical tenon joint are similar to those of the rectangular tenon joint, but the elliptical tenon is generally a single tenon, and the tenon width is the same as or slightly smaller than that of the tenon part.