Major Production Equipment and Type Selection of Plate Furniture

板式家具主要生产设备及选型

Major Production Equipment and Type Selection of Plate Furniture

板式家具是家具行业中比较常见的一种家具形式,由于其零部件的通用性和互换性,适合大批量生产。由于对零部件加工精度的要求比较高,故板式家具的生产对设备的要求相应就比较高。因此,根据产品的定位和产能的要求对板式家具设备进行选型并配置合适的设备是非常重要的。板式家具主要设备的类型如表1所示。

Plate furniture is a common form of furniture in the furniture industry. Because of the versatility and interchangeability of its components, it is suitable for mass production. Because of the high requirement of parts processing accuracy, the production of panel furniture requires higher equipment accordingly. Therefore, it is very important to select the type of panel furniture equipment and configure the appropriate equipment according to the requirements of product positioning and productivity. The types of main equipment of panel furniture are shown in Table 1.

一、开料设备

I. Opening Equipment

1.电子开料锯

  1. Electronic cutting saw

电子开料锯 是对板材进行批量裁切加工的设备,由于采用稳定的锯座运动方式,锯座运动速度可以达到60m/m in,采用大直径锯片,锯片升起较高,一般可以达到100mm,可以同时对几件板材进行同规格部件的切割,具有很高的锯切加工效率。电子开料锯普遍采用电脑进行锯切的计算和控制,可以使板材利用率得以提高。由于锯切是在封闭空间进行的,因此又具有很高的操作安全性。

Electronic cutting saw is a kind of equipment for batch cutting of sheet metal. Because of the stable movement mode of the saw seat, the movement speed of the saw seat can reach 60 m/m in. With large diameter saw blade, the saw blade rises higher, generally up to 100 mm. It can cut several pieces of sheet metal with the same specifications at the same time, and has high sawing efficiency. Computer is widely used to calculate and control the cutting of electronic cutting saw, which can improve the utilization ratio of sheet metal. Because sawing is carried out in closed space, it has high operational safety.

电子锯选型中,要注意以下参数:

In the selection of electronic saw, we should pay attention to the following parameters:

一是规格。规格是指锯切板材的最大规格,一般情况下,国内的板材规格是2440×1220mm,所有的电子锯均可以切割这个规格的板材。但是对于某些进口板材,如3048×1220mm、3658×1830mm等大规格板材,需要切割,在选型时就要加以考虑。

One is specifications. Specification refers to the largest size of sawing board. Generally speaking, the domestic plate size is 2440 *1220 mm. All electronic saws can cut the board of this specification. However, for some imported plates, such as 3048 * 1220 mm, 3658 * 1830 mm and other large-scale plates, cutting is necessary, which should be considered in the selection.

表1 板式家具主要加工设备的种类

Table 1 Types of Major Processing Equipment for Panel Furniture

二是锯高。一般电子锯的锯高有80mm、100mm、120 mm、150mm等。锯高比较大的型号,一次锯切的板材数量也比较多,但是锯切的质量和速度可能会受到一定影响,所以也不是锯高越大越好,一般以100~120mm为宜。

Second, sawing height. The sawing height of general electronic saw is 80 mm, 100 mm, 120 mm, 150 mm, etc. Sawing height of larger models, the number of lumber sawn at a time is also more, but the quality and speed of sawing may be affected, so it is not the higher the sawing height, the better, generally 100-120 mm is appropriate.

三是锯片进给速度。速度越大,锯切速度也越快。但是实际使用时,考虑到锯切板材品种、质量要求等,一般在每分钟20~30m为宜。

Third, the feed speed of the saw blade. The higher the speed, the faster the sawing speed. However, in actual use, considering the variety and quality requirements of sawn board, it is generally appropriate to use 20-30m per minute.

四是锯切软件。要求软件的界面采用中文,可以方便操作手的培训和实际操作,并减少操作的出错可能性。要求软件有自动排版功能,可提高材料利用率和锯切效率;要求软件具有储存和联网功能,可以使编程由专人在办公室完成,降低对操作手的文化要求,从而提高生产效率。

Fourth, sawing software. Require the interface of the software to use Chinese, which can facilitate the training and actual operation of the operator, and reduce the possibility of operation errors. Require software to have automatic typesetting function, which can improve material utilization and sawing efficiency; Require software to have storage and networking function, which can make the programming completed by a dedicated person in the office, reduce the cultural requirements of operators, thereby improving production efficiency.

2.精密推台锯

  1. Precision pusher saw

精密推台锯(如图2所示)是对板材进行灵活裁切加工的设备,由操作工人推动精密的铝合金推台沿锯切方向运动产生锯切,锯切规格调整方便迅速,是板式家具部件锯切的常见设备。

Precision pusher saw (as shown in Figure 2) is a flexible cutting equipment for sheet metal. The precise aluminum alloy pusher driven by the operator moves along the direction of sawing to produce sawing. The sawing specifications are adjusted conveniently and quickly. It is a common sawing equipment for panel furniture components.

精密推台锯选型中要注意以下参数:

The following parameters should be paid attention to in the selection of precision pusher saw:

一是导引台的形式 。导引台必须具有高稳定性、灵活性和精确性,为了达到这一目的,精密推台锯导引台一般采用大型双滚轴式垂直引导系统。区别在于导轨的形式,一般有两种:一种是采用高压树脂异形导轨,一种是采用高强度直线圆轨。由于高压树脂异形导轨的品质难以控制,因此在选择时应当加以注意。

One is the form of guidance platform. Guidance platform must have high stability, flexibility and accuracy. In order to achieve this goal, precision push-table saw guidance platform generally adopts large-scale dual-roller vertical guidance system. The difference lies in the form of guideway, generally there are two kinds: one is the use of high-pressure resin special-shaped guideway, the other is the use of high-strength linear circular rail. Because the quality of high-pressure resin special-shaped guide is difficult to control, attention should be paid to the selection.

图2 精密推台锯

Fig. 2 Precision pusher saw

图3 精密推台锯的导引台的形式

Fig. 3 The form of guide table for precision push-table saw

二是电机功率。一般精密推台锯的电机功率有3 KW、4.5KW两种,对于切割刨花板和厚度相对比较大的板材,宜选择4.5 KW的电机。

The second is motor power. Generally, the motor power of precision push saw is 3 KW and 4.5 KW. For cutting particleboard and plate with relatively large thickness, 4.5 KW motor should be selected.

三是锯切角度是否可调及调节方式。在实际生产中,常有部分工件的切割面需要切割成一定的角度,就要选择锯切角度可调的型号,一般锯切角度最大可以调整到45°;调节方式也有手动和电动可以选择,选择电动的可以方便调节。

The third is whether the sawing angle can be adjusted and how to adjust it. In actual production, some workpieces need to be cut into a certain angle, so we need to choose the model with adjustable sawing angle. Generally, the sawing angle can be adjusted up to 45 degrees. The adjusting mode can also be selected by manual and electric, and the electric one can be easily adjusted.

在实际配置过程中,一般都是配置1~2台角度可调机型,其它选择不可调机型,可以降低投资成本。

In the actual configuration process, generally configure 1-2 angle adjustable models, other choice of non-adjustable models, can reduce investment costs.

二、木皮剪切机

  1. Wood Shearing Machine

微薄木是高档家具中常用的饰面材料,木皮剪切机(如图4所示)是对微薄木进行齐边、截头等精密裁切加工的设备。工作时,由专用刀具在液压机构的驱动下对微薄木进行剪切,可以一次对数十张叠加的微薄木进行加工。木皮剪切机所要注意的参数一般就是最大加工长度,常用的为2600mm。

Micro-thin wood is a common decorative material in high-grade furniture. The wood shear machine (shown in Figure 4) is a precise cutting equipment for micro-thin wood, such as edge leveling and cutting head. When working, the special cutter cuts the thin wood under the drive of the hydraulic mechanism, and can process dozens of superimposed thin wood at one time. The parameters to be noticed in the wood shear are usually the maximum processing length, commonly used is 2600 mm.

图4 木皮剪切机

Fig. 4 Bark shearing machine

三、木皮拼缝机

  1. Wooden Bark Sewing Machine

由于大部分天然微薄木幅面较小,不适合直接覆盖在基材表面,如果直接覆盖在基材表面,相互之间的缝隙也很难控制,使得覆面之后的工件的表面质量不佳。本设备是采用快干型胶粘剂或者专用拼缝胶线对精密裁切后的微薄木进行拼接,形成大幅面微薄木的设备。使用该设备加工后,可以使板材表面形成连续紧密的微薄木覆面。

Because most of the natural thin wood is small in width, it is not suitable to cover directly on the surface of the base material. If it is directly covered on the surface of the base material, the gap between them is also difficult to control, which makes the surface quality of the workpiece after the cover poor. This equipment uses fast-drying adhesives or special sewing thread to splice the precisely cut micro-thin wood to form large-scale micro-thin wood. After processing with this equipment, continuous and compact veneer can be formed on the surface of the board.

木皮拼缝机的选型要注意拼缝机制的选择,拼缝机制有两种:

The selection of wood veneer sewing machine should pay attention to the selection of sewing mechanism. There are two kinds of sewing mechanism.

一种是采用专用拼缝胶线,由进给装置和胶线加热供应装置共同运行,在微薄木接缝处形成连续的S型轨迹(如图5所示),将微薄木拼接在一起。由于是不连续的规则距离的点状连接,在对拼接完成的微薄木进行移动、压贴加工时,容易产生开裂、脱线等缺陷。而且,胶线本身具有一定的厚度,在热压加工时,有胶线部位的微薄木被挤压,会产生密度大于其它位置的现象。在后续油漆加工的染色阶段,产生对染料吸收不均匀的现象,有时候会明显看到拼接的S型轨迹,影响产品的装饰效果,如图6、图7所示。这种拼缝机称为胶线拼缝机,价格低廉。

One is to use special sewing glue thread, which is operated by feeding device and heating and supplying device. A continuous S-shaped track is formed at the joints of the thin wood (as shown in Fig. 5), and the thin wood is joined together. Because it is a point connection with discontinuous regular distances, it is easy to cause cracking and off-line defects in the process of moving and pressing the jointed thin wood. Moreover, the glue thread itself has a certain thickness. When hot-pressing, the thin wood with glue thread is extruded, which will produce the phenomenon that the density is greater than that of other places. In the dyeing stage of subsequent paint processing, the phenomenon of non-uniform absorption of dyes occurs. Sometimes, S-shaped trajectory of splicing can be clearly seen, which affects the decorative effect of products, as shown in figs. 6 and 7. This kind of sewing machine is called glue sewing machine, which is cheap.

图5 拼缝加工完成时胶线S型轨迹

Fig. 5 The S-shaped trajectory of the glue thread when the sewing process is completed

图6 拼缝加工完成时胶线实际状态

Fig. 6 The actual state of the glue thread when the sewing process is completed

图7 热压完成后胶线引起的微薄木密度变化

Fig. 7 Density change of veneer caused by glue thread after hot pressing

另一种机制是采用胶粘剂涂布于微薄木的端面,将两张微薄木的边缘紧密胶粘在一起。这种机制拼接的微薄木质量稳定,在后续加工中基本不会出现加工缺陷。这种拼缝机称为自动连续纵向拼接机(如图8所示),但其价格比较高。

Another mechanism is to use adhesive to coat the end of the thin wood, and to bond the edges of the two thin wood tightly together. The quality of the thin wood spliced by this mechanism is stable, and there will be no processing defects in the subsequent processing. This sewing machine is called automatic continuous longitudinal splicing machine (as shown in Figure 8), but its price is relatively high.

四、涂胶机

IV. Glue Coating Machine

涂胶机(如图9所示)将胶液均匀连续涂布于平面工件表面的设备,一般是利用两个钢辊相对转动,钢辊之间布设胶液,钢辊之间的缝隙使得钢辊下表面形成胶膜,然后将胶膜转涂至工件表面,有单面涂胶和双面涂胶之分。由于钢辊之间的缝隙比较均匀,钢辊的运动速度可控,可以使基材表面均匀快速地形成胶膜。在微薄木贴面加工中,采用涂胶机还可以控制涂胶量,使得胶液不会演微薄木的管孔渗漏至表面,影响涂饰后的表面效果。

The glue coating machine (as shown in Figure 9) is equipped to coat the glue evenly and continuously on the surface of planar workpiece. Generally, the two steel rollers rotate relative to each other. The glue is laid between the steel rollers. The gap between the steel rollers causes the glue film to form on the lower surface of the steel rollers. Then the glue film is transferred to the surface of the workpiece, which can be divided into one-sided glue coating and two-sided glue coating. Because of the uniform gap between the steel rollers and the controllable movement speed of the steel rollers, the rubber film can be formed uniformly and rapidly on the surface of the substrate. In the process of veneer veneer, the amount of veneer can also be controlled by gluing machine, so that the glue will not leak into the surface of veneer and affect the surface effect after finishing.

图8 自动连续纵向木皮拼缝机

Figure 8 Automatic continuous longitudinal veneer sewing machine

图9 双面涂胶机

Figure 9 Double-sided gluing machine

涂胶机的选型要注意以下参数:

The following parameters should be paid attention to in the selection of glue coating machine:

一是单、双面涂胶。双面涂胶效率高,产量大;单面涂胶胶液均匀稳定。

One is single-sided and double-sided gluing. Double-sided glue coating has high efficiency and large output, and single-sided glue coating is uniform and stable.

二是胶辊形式。一般有双钢辊、胶辊和钢辊组合、双胶辊三种形式,双钢辊涂胶机对于厚度有一定偏差的板材的涂胶均匀度有影响,胶辊和钢辊组合和双胶辊具有一定的弹性,可以适应一定范围内的厚度变化,涂胶均匀度较好。胶辊也分为光面和有沟槽两种,有沟槽的胶辊对施胶量的控制比较精准,但是清洗和维护相对要复杂得多,适合大批量生产使用。

The other is the form of cots. Generally, there are three forms of double steel rollers, rubber rollers and steel rollers combination, double rubber rollers. The double steel rollers gluing machine has an effect on the uniformity of gluing of sheets with certain thickness deviation. The combination of rubber rollers and steel rollers and double rubber rollers have certain elasticity, which can adapt to the thickness change within a certain range, and the uniformity of gluing is better. Cots can also be divided into smooth surface and grooved cots. The grooved cots can control the sizing amount accurately, but the cleaning and maintenance are much more complex and suitable for mass production.

三是最大加工宽度和厚度。对加厚板的涂胶有影响。

Third, the maximum processing width and thickness. It has an effect on the coating of the thickened plate.

五、热压机

V. Hot Press

热压机(如图10所示)用于微薄木与基材的热压覆面,一般采用多孔钢板,使经过电加热的导热油通过管道导入钢板内部,对钢板进行加热。工件一般放置在两层钢板之间,由液压装置对钢板和工件加压,热量透过微薄木使胶液迅速固化,形成美观的覆面材料。

Hot press (as shown in Fig. 10) is used for hot-pressing overlay of thin wood and base material. Porous steel plate is generally used to heat the steel plate by introducing the electrically heated heat conducting oil into the steel plate through a pipeline. Workpieces are usually placed between two layers of steel plates. The steel plates and workpieces are pressurized by hydraulic devices. The heat can quickly solidify the glue through thin wood to form a beautiful overlay material.

由于胶水在高温下干燥固化速度比较快,对于小规格工件,全部放置到压机中需要一定的时间。因此,如果双面同时贴,先放入压机的工件下表面与压机的压板接触受热,待最后一个小规格工件放置完毕,先放入的工件的小表面胶水已经在无压力的状态下受热过久,胶水已经固化或者部分固化。在此次压合完成后,先放入的工件极易产生饰面微薄木鼓泡、离层等缺陷。因此,对于小规格工件,多层压机也只能当作单层压机使用,而大规格工件(整张板)由于放入压机的速度比较快,对压贴质量影响并不大。

Because the glue dries and solidifies quickly at high temperature, it takes a certain time to place all the small size workpieces in the press. Therefore, if both sides are pasted at the same time, the lower surface of the workpiece put into the press is heated by contact with the pressing plate of the press. When the last small size workpiece is placed, the small surface glue of the workpiece put in first has been heated for too long in the pressure-free state, and the glue has solidified or partially solidified. After this pressing, the workpiece put in first is easy to produce defects such as bubbling and delamination of veneer thin wood. Therefore, for small size workpiece, multi-layer press can only be used as a single-layer press, while large size workpiece (whole sheet) has little impact on the quality of pressing due to the speed of putting into the press.

图10 三层热压机

Figure 10 Three-Layer Hot Press

由上可知,对于产品部件以小规格为主的生产线,热压机选择单层压机为宜;对于部件以大规格为主的生产线,热压机选择多层为宜。

It can be seen from the above that for the production line with small parts as the main specification, the single-layer press is the best choice for the hot press, and for the production line with large parts as the main specification, the multi-layer hot press is the best choice.

另外,对于小规格工件,可以使用涂胶机单面涂胶,然后将工件摆放在一张整张夹板上,一起推入压机。这样既可以使用单层压机,也可以使用多层压机,并且可以将工件摆放与压机工作同步进行,有效地提高了工作效率。

In addition, for small size workpieces, the glue machine can be used for one-sided glue coating, and then the workpiece is placed on a whole splint, pushed into the press together. In this way, both single-layer press and multi-layer press can be used, and the work piece can be placed synchronously with the press work, which effectively improves the work efficiency.

热压机的选择中所要注意的参数不多,主要是压力、温度、压板规格等。

There are not many parameters to be paid attention to in the selection of hot press, such as pressure, temperature, plate specifications and so on.

六、全自动直线封边机

  1. Automatic Linear Edge Sealer

板式家具中的板材经过锯切加工的端面必须经过封边的保护和美化。全自动直线封边机(如图11所示)是将实木、PVC等封边材料封贴于板材的边缘的设备。该设备将熔化的热熔胶涂布于工件端面,然后将封边材料压贴在工件上,热熔胶迅速固化形成胶黏力,将封边材料与工件结合,之后还要经过端切、修边、刮边、抛光、砂光等环节,使工件的端面形成美观的保护。

The end face of sawing plate in panel furniture must be protected and beautified by edge sealing. Fully automatic linear edge sealing machine (as shown in Figure 11) is a device that seals solid wood, PVC and other edge sealing materials on the edge of the board. The equipment coats the melted hot melt adhesive on the end face of the workpiece, and then press the sealing material on the workpiece. The hot melt adhesive solidifies quickly to form adhesive force, and combines the sealing material with the workpiece. After that, the end face of the workpiece is protected beautifully by end cutting, trimming, scraping, polishing and sanding.

图11 全自动直线封边机

Fig. 11 Automatic Linear Edge Sealer

封边机的选配主要取决于待加工工件的形状特点、封边材料的类别,同时还要考虑生产率和质量等问题。

The selection of edge-sealing machine mainly depends on the shape characteristics of the workpiece to be processed, the types of edge-sealing materials, as well as productivity and quality.

封边机的选型要注意以下功能的选配:

The selection of edge sealing machine should pay attention to the following functions:

1.直线封边

  1. Linear Edge Sealing

直线封边配置时主要考虑封边特点,进行一些功能的增减选配。涂胶、端切、粗修边一般作为基本的配置,而预铣刀、刮边、抛光、跟踪修边等功能都作为独立的部分供选择。如对PVC或ABS等封边材料需加装刮刀装置;对实木封边条,需增加精修刀及砂光装置;为保证封边质量不受冬季气温低的影响,最好选择配备有远红外预热装置或者激光预热装置并对加工端面进行预热的封边机;其它可选择的附加配置也有很多,如自动跟踪圆角修边功能、铣刀装置等。

Linear edge-closing configuration mainly considers the characteristics of edge-closing, and carries out some functions of addition or subtraction. Glue coating, end cutting and rough trimming are generally used as basic configurations, while pre-milling cutter, scraping, polishing, tracking trimming and other functions are selected as independent parts. For example, scrapers should be installed on the sealing materials such as PVC or ABS; fine trimming knives and sanding devices should be added to the solid wood trimming strips; in order to ensure that the quality of edge sealing is not affected by the low temperature in winter, it is better to choose the edge-sealing machine equipped with far-infrared preheating device or laser preheating device and preheating the processing end surface; there are many other optional additional configurations, such as automatic tracking round corner trimming. Function, milling cutter device, etc.

封边机的加工性能和加工质量对工件的美观和质量具有很大的影响。比较先进的封边机一般在最前端加装预铣装置,利用一对相对高速转动的铣刀对板材端面进行铣削加工,使端面形成向内微凹的型面,使得封边材料的边缘紧密地贴合在板材上,封边材料与板材的结合位置的缝隙极小,使板式部件完美无缺。

The processing performance and quality of the edge sealing machine have a great influence on the beauty and quality of the workpiece. Advanced edge-sealing machines usually install pre-milling devices at the front end, and use a pair of relatively high-speed rotating milling cutters to milling the end face of the sheet, so that the end face forms a concave profile inward, making the edge of the edge-sealing material closely adhere to the sheet, and the gap between the edge-sealing material and the sheet is very small, making the sheet parts perfect.

对于门板、台面等部件一般采用比较厚的封边材料(2~3mm),还要求封边机具有追踪修边功能,使工件的端角部位得以精致修饰。

Thicker edge-sealing materials (2-3mm) are generally used for door panels, countertops and other components. The edge-sealing machine is also required to have the function of tracking and trimming, so that the corner parts of the workpiece can be refined.

普通直线封边机对于锯断的封边带的两端不能进一步地修正(例如鸭嘴型桌面板封边条的两端)(如图12所示),跟踪修边装置就能修饰这类边角(图13所示)。可以这样说,普通直线型封边机只能修封边条的上下两条边,当增加了跟踪修边装置时就能把封边条的四周都进行修正(如图14所示)。大家都知道,当产品质量提高到一定水平,手工很难将整批产品转弯抹角都处理得一致,就必须采用设备很细腻地处理产品的边边角角,这也体现了产品的品质。所以跟踪修边装置为提高产品的品质、提高产品的附加值提供了保证。

Ordinary linear edge-sealing machine can not further modify the ends of the sawn edge-sealing band (such as the ends of the duck-billed desktop edge-sealing strip) (as shown in Figure 12), and the tracking trimming device can modify such edges (as shown in Figure 13). It can be said that the ordinary linear edge-sealing machine can only trim the upper and lower edges of the edge-sealing strip. When the tracking edge-trimming device is added, the edge-sealing strip can be corrected all around (as shown in Figure 14). As we all know, when the quality of products is improved to a certain level, it is difficult for the whole batch of products to be handled consistently by hand. It is necessary to adopt the equipment to handle the edges and corners of the products very delicately, which also reflects the quality of the products. Therefore, the tracking trimming device provides a guarantee for improving the quality of products and the added value of products.

图12 普通封边机封边的端面

Fig. 12 End face of common edge sealing machine

图12 普通封边机封边的端面

Fig. 12 End face of common edge sealing machine

图13 封边机跟踪修边组件

Figure 13 Tracking trimming component of edge sealing machine

在进行跟踪修边时,进料速度一般是恒定的。各种机型的进料速度不一致,但是当进料速度变化时跟踪修边效果就差,或不能跟踪修边。

The feeding speed is usually constant in the process of tracking trimming. The feeding speed of various models is different, but when the feeding speed changes, the effect of tracking trimming is poor, or the trimming can not be tracked.

对于0.4~0.8mm厚度的封边带,跟踪修边作用就不大,这些封边带本身比较薄,用细砂纸处理一下就可以了;2~3mm厚的封边带跟踪修边效果最好;封边带厚度大于3mm跟踪修边装置就无能为力了,跟踪修边装置的修边刀一般圆弧R=3mm,属于标准配置[1]。钻位反向高速旋转,钻排可以自由调节工位和钻孔深度,可以同时对一个端面和正面进行孔位加工。常用的有单排、双排、三排、四排及六排钻,一般六排钻可以同时对两个端面和一个正面进行孔位加工。

For the 0.4-0.8mm thickness edge-sealing belt, the tracking trimming effect is not great. These edge-sealing belts are thin and can be treated with fine sand paper. The 2-3mm thickness edge-sealing belt has the best effect of tracking trimming. The tracking trimming device with the thickness of the edge-sealing belt greater than 3mm is powerless. The trimming knife of the tracking trimming device is generally circular R=3mm, which belongs to the standard configuration [1]. The drilling position is rotated at high speed in reverse direction. The drilling row can freely adjust the working position and drilling depth, and can simultaneously process the hole position on one end face and front face. Commonly used are single-row, double-row, three-row, four-row and six-row drills. Generally, six-row drills can process two ends and one front simultaneously.

图14 跟踪修边封边机封边的端面

Fig. 14 Tracking the end face of trimming and edge sealing machine

对于比较厚的材料或者工件的封边(厚度大于30mm),一般要选择上置胶箱。之所以选择上置胶箱,是因为下置胶箱向上供胶时对超厚材料容易产生供胶不足的现象,影响封边质量。

For thicker material or workpiece edge sealing (thicker than 30mm), generally choose the upper rubber box. The reason why the upper rubber box is chosen is that when the lower rubber box is supplied to the upper rubber, it is easy to cause insufficient rubber supply to the super-thick material, which affects the sealing quality.

2.曲线封边

  1. Curve Edge Sealing

曲线封边可以采用几种方法进行加工。目前大多数厂家采用手工封边机(如图15所示)加工曲边部件,特别是有内弧的板材部件,封边机靠轮的直径将决定可以加工的最大曲线深度。使用手工封边机封曲边具有操作简单、投资少的特点。但是由于采用手工封边,质量相对不高,主要表现在胶合强度较低,重复精度差,返工率较高。同时手工封边机对于常用的厚型封边条(2.0~3.0mm)封边相对比较困难,而对一些不可见部件上使用的薄封边条(0.4~1.0mm)则可以进行直、曲线加工[2]。

Curve edge sealing can be processed by several methods. At present, most manufacturers use manual edge sealing machine (as shown in Fig. 15) to process curved edge parts, especially plate parts with internal arc. The diameter of the wheel of edge sealing machine will determine the maximum curve depth that can be processed. The use of manual edge sealing machine has the characteristics of simple operation and low investment. However, due to the use of manual edge sealing, the quality is relatively low, mainly manifested in the lower bonding strength, poor repetition accuracy and high rework rate. At the same time, manual edge-sealing machine is relatively difficult to seal thick edges (2.0-3.0 mm), while thin edge-sealing strips (0.4-1.0 mm) used in some invisible parts can be processed straight and curved.

图16 多排钻床a

Fig. 16 Multi-row drilling machine a

图17 多排钻床b

Figure 17 Multi-row drilling machine B

图15 曲直线封边机(手动封边机)

Fig. 15 Curve Linear Edge Sealer (Manual Edge Sealer)

图16 多排钻床a

Fig. 16 Multi-row drilling machine a

图17 多排钻床b

Figure 17 Multi-row drilling machine B

图15 曲直线封边机(手动封边机)

Fig. 15 Curve Linear Edge Sealer (Manual Edge Sealer)

3.数控加工中心或数控封边机

  1. CNC Machining Center or CNC Edge Sealer

曲线封边机为了达到稳定的高质量水平,需要采用数控加工中心或数控封边机,这两种机器对于一些特殊曲面的封边可以显示出特别的优势。比如,使用封边带长度计数器可以使圆周封边对接的间隙最小,更适于制造高档家具商品。二者的区别是,加工中心可以实现从素板锯裁到最后零部件成形的全部工序,而专用的数控封边机只能完成封边和齐边工序,使用加工中心封边的缺点是封边占用总加工时间较大,降低了整个生产效率。

In order to achieve a stable high quality level, curve edge-sealing machine needs to use CNC machining center or CNC edge-sealing machine. These two machines can show special advantages for some special curved surface edge-sealing. For example, the use of edge-sealing band length counter can make the circumferential edge docking clearance minimum, more suitable for manufacturing high-end furniture goods. The difference between the two is that the machining center can realize all the processes from plain plate sawing to final parts forming, while the special NC edge-sealing machine can only complete the edge-sealing and leveling processes. The disadvantage of using the machining center edge-sealing is that the total processing time of edge-sealing is large and the whole production efficiency is reduced.

七、多排多轴钻床

  1. Multi-row and multi-axis drilling machine

多排多轴钻床(如图16、图17所示)是用于板材工件的连接等孔位的加工的设备。该设备采用每个钻位之间相邻为32mm的钻座,每个钻座排列8~10个钻位,相邻

Multi-row multi-spindle drilling machine (shown in Fig. 16 and Fig. 17) is a kind of equipment for processing holes such as joints of sheet metal workpieces. The equipment uses 32 mm drill seats adjacent to each drill bit, and each drill bit is arranged in 8 to 10 drill positions adjacent to each other.

多排钻选型的重要参数:最大加工长度、最大加工宽度、最大钻孔深度、钻组定位方式、钻座的形式等。这里需要详细说明的是钻排定位方式和钻头快速接头的形式。

Important parameters of multi-row drilling selection: maximum processing length, maximum processing width, maximum drilling depth, drill group positioning mode, drill bit form, etc. Here we need to elaborate on the positioning method of drill row and the form of quick bit joint.

一是钻排定位方式。钻组的调节一般通过丝杆、直线齿轮齿条导轨、精密定位导轨三种方式。丝杆价格低廉,一般用于低端产品上。通过旋转丝杆调节(调节速度比较慢),调节到位后无需再采用其他定位装置,靠丝杆的阻止作用定位,定位精度稍差;直线齿轮齿条导轨价格适中,靠齿轮旋转后与齿条之间的啮合而移动,速度比较快,调节到位后一般需要气动锁止装置锁紧;精密定位导轨一般与工业电脑(PLC)相连,在电脑中输入定位点数据,直接推动钻组沿导轨滑动,通过钻组上的探测装置对导轨上均匀分布的磁点(磁点间距在0.01~0.1mm之间,距离越小,定位精度越高)进行探测,并将探测结果转化为电讯号与工业电脑(PLC)进行闭路循环运算,在钻组到达定位点后自动进行气动锁止,定位速度快,可以实现自动化定位,成本比较高,一般应用于高级排钻产品。

One is the positioning method of drill row. The adjustment of drill group is generally through three ways: screw rod, linear gear rack guide rail and precise positioning guide rail. Screw rods are cheap and are generally used in low-end products. By adjusting the rotating screw rod (the adjusting speed is slower), no other positioning device is needed after the adjustment is in place, positioning accuracy is slightly worse by the blocking effect of the screw rod; the price of the linear gear rack guide rail is moderate, and it moves by the meshing between the rack and the gear after the rotation, the speed is relatively fast, and the pneumatic locking device is generally needed after the adjustment is in place; the precision positioning guide rail is generally locked by the pneumatic locking device. Connected with industrial computer (PLC), the data of locating points are input into the computer, which directly drives the drilling group to slide along the guide rail. Through the detection device on the drilling group, the magnetic points evenly distributed on the guide rail (the distance between magnetic points is 0.01-0.1 mm, the smaller the distance, the higher the positioning accuracy) are detected, and the detection results are converted into telecommunication signals and the industrial computer (PLC) for closed-circuit calculation. After reaching the locating point, the drilling group can automatically carry out pneumatic locking. The locating speed is fast, and the automatic locating can be realized. The cost is relatively high. It is generally used in advanced drilling row products.

二是钻头快速接头的形式。钻头快速接头是将不同规格的钻头与钻座连接的主要装置,主要由内接式、外接式和螺杆式(如图18所示)。常用的为内接式,螺杆式因为结合速度最慢,已逐渐不被排钻所采用(如图19所示)。

The second is the form of quick joint of drill bit. The quick joint of drill bit is the main device connecting different specifications of drill bit and drill bit, mainly by the internal, external and screw type (as shown in Figure 18). The commonly used type is the inline type, and the screw type is gradually not used by drilling because of the slowest bonding speed (as shown in Figure 19).

钻排定位方式和钻头快速接头的形式在一定程度上对排钻的工作效率有影响,对于定制生产的产品部件的加工效率影响尤甚。因此,在排钻选型时要加以注意。

To a certain extent, the positioning mode of drill row and the form of quick bit joints have an impact on the efficiency of drill row, especially on the processing efficiency of customized parts. Therefore, attention should be paid to the selection of row drilling.

图18 排钻钻头常见快速接头

Fig. 18 Common Quick Joints for Drill Bits

图19 排钻钻头快速接头的安装方式

Fig. 19 Installation method of quick joint of drill bit

三是钻轴。钻轴作为一个标准的组件,本身是不能改动参数的。但是钻轴整体的角度调整(如图20所示)对钻孔效率的影响很大。例如,柜体侧板通常都有层板孔,它们与主要连接孔位的方向是呈垂直90°角的,如果钻轴不能调整,则需要分数次进行加工,而如果钻轴的角度可调,则可以减少加工的次数,提高生产效率。

The third is the drill shaft. As a standard component, the drill shaft itself can not change the parameters. However, the overall angle adjustment of the drill shaft (as shown in Figure 20) has a great impact on drilling efficiency. For example, the side panels of cabinets usually have laminate holes, which are perpendicular to the direction of the main connecting holes at 90 degrees. If the drill shaft can not be adjusted, fractional processing is required. If the angle of the drill shaft is adjustable, the number of processing can be reduced and the production efficiency can be improved.

图20 多排钻床钻轴的调整

Fig. 20 Adjustment of Drilling Shaft of Row Drilling Machine

八、结语

Eight, conclusion

总之,板式家具常用设备的选型,应该根据产品的特点、工艺流程、产量等数据进行充分的分析,获取参数,在此基础上总结出对设备的性能和参数要求,根据要求进行设备选型,才能更加贴合家具生产的具体需要,从而获得较好的经济效益和社会效益。

In a word, the selection of common equipment for panel furniture should be based on the data of product characteristics, process flow and output to obtain parameters. On this basis, the performance and parameters requirements of equipment are summarized. Only by selecting equipment according to requirements, can the specific needs of furniture production be more suitable, and better economic and social benefits be obtained.

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